The Thirty Years’ War profoundly altered Europe’s political landscape and social fabric. 1 The Prague Defenestration 2 The Battle of White Mountain 3 The Danish War 4 The Swedish War 5 The Franco-Swedish Phase This war's roots go back to the Reformation and the spread of … [43], At a meeting of the Imperial Diet in February 1623, Ferdinand forced through provisions transferring Frederick's titles, lands and electoral vote to Maximilian. [47] In 1621, Hamburg accepted Danish 'supervision', while his son Frederick became joint-administrator of Lübeck, Bremen and Verden. [53] By the end of 1627, Wallenstein occupied Mecklenburg, Pomerania and Jutland, and began making plans to construct a fleet capable of challenging Danish control of the Baltic. For the outbreak of the war the deepening crisis of the Holy Roman Empire was of crucial importance. This threatened other Protestant rulers within the Empire, including Christian IV of Denmark, who was also Duke of Holstein. While less than 2% of the total French state budget, it made up over 25% of the Swedish, and allowed Gustavus to support an army of 36,000. A parallel struggle involved the rivalry of France with the Habsburgs of the empire and with the Habsburgs of Spain, who had been attempting to construct a cordon of anti-French alliances. With the exception of England's short cameo, pretty much everyone had a prominent role to play RELEASED? [63], Expectations of widespread support proved unrealistic; by the end of 1630, the only new Swedish ally was Magdeburg, which was besieged by Tilly. One of the most prosperous areas of the Empire, Bohemia's electoral vote was also essential to ensuring Ferdinand succeeded Matthias as Emperor, and Habsburg prestige required its recapture. He was supported by Spain, for whom it provided an opportunity to open another front against the Dutch. Partly a genuine desire to support his Protestant co-religionists, like Christian he also wanted to maximise his share of the Baltic trade that provided much of Sweden's income. The armies of both sides plundered as they marched, leaving cities, towns, villages, and farms ravaged. Of the 30,000 citizens, only 5,000 survived. The Peace of Westphalia, which brought the brutalities of the Thirty Years’ War to an end in 1648, still looms large as a major turning point in the history of both international law and international politics. [76], These setbacks increased pressure on both Ferdinand and Spanish minister Olivares to make peace. [31], Ferdinand reconfirmed Protestant religious freedoms when elected king of Bohemia in May 1617, but his record in Styria led to the suspicion he was only awaiting a chance to overturn them. Although the battle was far from decisive, the rebels were demoralised by lack of pay, shortages of supplies and disease, while the countryside had been devastated by Imperial troops. [19], Managing these issues was complicated by the fragmented nature of the Empire, a patchwork of nearly 1,800 separate entities in Germany, the Low Countries, Northern Italy, and areas like Alsace, now part of modern France. [123] In 2012, she and other victims were officially exonerated by the Cologne City Council. Whilst the conflict took place mainly in the area of modern day Germany, it involved many of the great European powers at that time. In May, a combined Franco-Swedish army destroyed the last major Imperial army at Zusmarshausen, while a second Swedish force besieged Prague. Omissions? Although retaken in 1625, a second fleet established Dutch Brazil in 1630, which was then relinquished in 1654. In fact, the year 2018 also marks the anniversary of two interconnected events that changed European and world history forever. [32], Thurn established a new government, and the conflict expanded into Silesia and the Habsburg heartlands of Lower and Upper Austria, where much of the nobility was also Protestant. Thirty years' war definition, the war, often regarded as a series of wars (1618–48), in central Europe, initially involving a conflict between German Protestants and Catholics and later including political rivalries with France, Sweden, and Denmark opposing the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. Define 30 years war. Four of the electors were Catholic, three Protestant; if this could be changed, it might result in a Protestant Emperor. Although opposition to this act united all German princes regardless of religion, Maximilian of Bavaria was compromised by his acquisition of the Palatinate; while Protestants wanted Frederick restored and the position returned to that of 1618, the Catholic League argued only for pre-1627. Poland, having been drawn in as a Baltic power coveted by Sweden, pushed its own ambitions by attacking Russia and establishing a dictatorship in Moscow under Władysław, Poland’s future king. 30 YEARS WAR is the soundtrack of a bloody grinding train wreck. Free Shipping by Amazon ... From The Fall of Constantinople to the Thirty Years War. [41], Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions. Under the December 1625 Treaty of The Hague, the Dutch and English now agreed to finance Danish intervention in the Empire. AIDS The 30 years war. While Denmark kept Schleswig and Holstein until 1864, this effectively ended its reign as the predominant Nordic state. In an event known as the Third Defenestration of Prague, the two men and their secretary Philip Fabricius were thrown out of the castle windows, although all three survived. Then the predominant global power, the Spanish Empire included the Spanish Netherlands, much of Italy, the Philippines, and most of the Americas, while Austria remained focused on Central Europe. All across Europe, but mostly in central Germany WHO? Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of Europe , and, when it ended with the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the map of Europe had been irrevocably changed. The ancient notion of a Roman Catholic empire of Europe, headed spiritually by a pope and temporally by an emperor, was permanently abandoned, and the essential structure of modern Europe as a community of sovereign states was established. In this strategy game, players will take control of one of the opposing sides, Protestants or Catholics, and fight for the control of the Empire. Ferdinand won after a five-year struggle. See more. While this gave them seats in the Imperial Diet, it also brought them conflict with both Brandenburg-Prussia and Saxony, who were competitors in Pomerania. [59], As ever, Richelieu's policy was to 'arrest the course of Spanish progress', and 'protect her neighbours from Spanish oppression'. Funded by Frederick and the Duke of Savoy, a mercenary army under Ernst von Mansfeld succeeded in stabilising the Bohemian position over the winter of 1618. Introduction. The war originated with dual crises at the continent’s centre: one in the Rhineland and the other in Bohemia, both part of the Holy Roman Empire.…, The Bohemian problem was resolved swiftly. The principal battlefield for all these intermittent conflicts was the towns and principalities of Germany, which suffered severely. The Thirty Years War is a war fought in the pre-industrial age, so loss of human life and indeed of animals cannot be replaced by machinery. Thirty years' war definition, the war, often regarded as a series of wars (1618–48), in central Europe, initially involving a conflict between German Protestants and Catholics and later including political rivalries with France, Sweden, and Denmark opposing the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. [104], Historians often refer to the 'General Crisis' of the mid-17th century, a period of sustained conflict in states such as China, the British Isles, Tsarist Russia and the Holy Roman Empire. During 1629, another 274 suspected witches were killed in the Bishopric of Eichstätt, plus another 50 in the adjacent Duchy of Palatinate-Neuburg. While both were primarily designed to support the dynastic ambitions of their leaders, they combined with events like the 1609 to 1614 War of the Jülich Succession to increase tensions throughout the Empire. [84] However, fighting continued as both sides tried to improve their bargaining position; suffering from ill-health, at the end of 1645 Torstenson was replaced by Carl Gustaf Wrangel, who over-ran Bavaria in the autumn of 1646. [106], The war has been described as one of the greatest medical catastrophes in history. While technically legal, politically it was extremely unwise, since doing so would alter nearly every single state boundary in North and Central Germany, deny the existence of Calvinism and restore Catholicism in areas where it had not been a significant presence for nearly a century. Lut… In addition, Christians residing in states where they were a minority, such as Catholics living under a Lutheran ruler, were guaranteed freedom of worship and equality before the law. This is generally seen as the point when the conflict ceased to be primarily a German civil war. The Thirty Years’ War was a European continental war that took place from 1618-1648 (thirty years!). [62] The Smolensk War is considered a separate but related part of the Thirty Years' War. [54], In May 1628, his deputy von Arnim besieged Stralsund, the only port with large enough shipbuilding facilities, but this brought Sweden into the war. The Peace consisted of three separate agreements; the Peace of Münster between Spain and the Dutch Republic, the treaty of Osnabrück between the Empire and Sweden, plus the treaty of Münster between the Empire and France. The conflict can be split into two main parts. Fighting did not end immediately, since demobilising over 200,000 soldiers was a complex business, and the last Swedish garrison did not leave Germany until 1654. Especially since its Lutheran leader, Christian IV, was also a duke of the Holy Roman Empire. See more. Although the struggles that created it erupted some years earlier, the war is conventionally held to have begun in 1618, when the future Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II, in his role as king of Bohemia, attempted to impose Roman Catholic absolutism on his domains, and the Protestant nobles of both Bohemia and Austria rose up in rebellion. The conflict lasted, unceasing, for 30 years, making it the longest continuous war in modern history. In 1625 King Christian IV of Denmark saw an opportunity to gain valuable territory in Germany to balance his earlier loss of Baltic provinces to Sweden. The Battle of Rocroi in 1643, was the first defeat of the Spanish army in over a century, and could be considered a turning point in the war. [103], It has been argued the Peace established the principle known as Westphalian sovereignty, the idea of non-interference in domestic affairs by outside powers, although this has since been challenged. [112], In 1940, agrarian historian Günther Franz published Der Dreissigjährige Krieg und das Deutsche Volk, a detailed analysis of regional data from across Germany; his membership of the Nazi Party meant his objectivity was challenged post-1945, but recent reviews support his general findings. Catholic France also entered the war, but not on the Catholic side. After tense negotiations with Swedish Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna, in the April 1635 Treaty of Compiègne Richelieu agreed to provide additional subsidies, and declared war on Spain in May, beginning the 1635 to 1659 Franco-Spanish War. Meanwhile the conflict widened, fueled by political ambitions of the various powers. The war grew ever more muddled with the Dutch-Spanish war folded in as well. Maximilian was desperate to end the war he was largely responsible for starting, while Mazarin feared Sweden becoming too strong; on 14 March 1647, Bavaria, Cologne, France, and Sweden signed the Truce of Ulm. James responded to this attack on his son-in-law by sending naval forces to threaten Spanish possessions in the Americas and the Mediterranean, and announced he would declare war if Spinola had not withdrawn his troops by spring 1621. This resulted in a Gordian tangle of alliances as princes and prelates called in foreign powers to aid them. "into line with army of Gabriel Bethlen in 1620". The Thirty years' War in the Movies by Burgwaechterchen | created - 27 Nov 2010 | updated - 17 Apr 2017 | Public No Ranking,just listing..If the film is not directly connected to the 30 year's war,I at least try to concentrate on the times of the early 17th century. [23], As a result, when the Imperial Diet opened in February 1608, the Protestants demanded formal confirmation of the Augsburg settlement, which was especially significant for Calvinists like Frederick IV, Elector Palatine who had not been included. [85], During the winter of 1647, Mazarin suggested the Spanish exchange Catalonia, then occupied by France, for the Spanish Netherlands; angered by what they viewed as betrayal, in January 1648 the Dutch signed the Peace of Münster, ending their war with Spain. Wars over the years have changed dramatically, and American involvement in them has varied as well. Attempts by Maximilian of Bavaria and John George of Saxony to broker a negotiated solution ended when Matthias died in March 1619, since it convinced many the Habsburgs were fatally damaged. Possession of these fortresses gave France effective control of Piedmont, protected the Alpine passes into Southern France, and allowed them to threaten Milan at will. [120], At the same time, Prince-Bishop Johann von Dornheim held a similar series of large-scale witch trials in the nearby Bishopric of Bamberg. Corrections? Five days later, the Prince de Condé won a decisive French victory at Rocroi, although he was unable to take full advantage. The Thirty Years' War was one of the bloodiest events in European history — deadlier than the Black Death and World War II, in terms of the proportion of the population lost. Outcome of Thirty Years War The result of the thirty year war was that the German princes could choose their own religion, as long as it was one of the big three . [74] In March 1636, France finally joined the Thirty Years War in alliance with Sweden, launching offensives in Germany and the Low Countries. In addition, Lutherans could keep lands or property taken from the Catholic Church since the 1552 Peace of Passau. The Thirty Years War was largely the war of the Counter-Reformation. The Peace of Augsburg (1555), signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the 1526 Diet of Speyer, ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, and establishing that: 1. The Thirty Years War, a multifaceted and multinational political and military conflict that raged over central Europe between 1618 and 1648 has often been considered, at least in the scope of misery and destruction it brought to those experiencing it, as a disaster comparable to, if not greater than, the two world wars and the Black Death. The advance quickly fell apart; Mansfeld was defeated at Dessau Bridge in April, and when Maurice refused to support him, Christian of Brunswick fell back on Wolfenbüttel, where he died of disease shortly after. The Thirty Years' War lasted from 1618 to 1648 in Europe, and was one of the most destructive wars in European history, claiming around eight million lives in total.In some places half the pre-war population died and the war thoroughly influenced the Baroque Era which had prevalent themes of "vanitas" or the ultimate death and decay of all earthly things. [18] In addition, rulers might share the same religion but have different economic and strategic objectives; for much of the war, the Papacy supported France against the Habsburgs. It is thought to have been written by a man in the entourage of Ottavio Piccolomini. For full treatment, see Europe, history of: The Thirty Years’ War. This included ambitious Imperial states like Lutheran Saxony and Catholic Bavaria, as well as France, which faced Habsburg territories on its borders in Flanders, Franche-Comté, and the Pyrenees. The Thirty Years’ War had a profound impact on Europe, and some of the consequences of this war can be seen in the changes that were made to European society. Occasionally it meant full-scale conflict, such as the 1583 to 1588 Cologne War, caused by the conversion to Calvinism of the Prince Elector, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg. Battles of the Thirty Years War: From White Mountain to Nordlingen, 1618-1635 (Contributions in Military Studies) by William P. Guthrie | Oct 30, 2001 4.2 out of 5 stars 8 A combined Imperial-Catholic League army funded by Maximilian and led by Count Tilly pacified Upper and Lower Austria before invading Bohemia, where they defeated Christian of Anhalt at the White Mountain in November 1620. The Thirty Years War is the series of conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire and its surroundings, between 1618 and 1648. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire.What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. [79] Mazarin began seeking a negotiated peace; 25 years of constant war had devastated the countryside, forcing armies to spend more time foraging than fighting, and drastically reducing their ability to sustain campaigns. [130] Although the Franco-Spanish conflict continued until 1659 and Spain remained a global force for another two centuries, Westphalia allowed Louis XIV of France to complete the process of replacing her as the predominant European power. While flight may have saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. This Thirty Years War series was released from August 2013 to June 2014. 17th century Europe was a highly structured and socially conservative society, and their lack of enthusiasm was due to the implications of removing a legally elected ruler, regardless of religion. Its main provisions included Spanish confirmation of Dutch independence and acceptance of "German liberties" by the Austrian Habsburgs. [36], On 19 August, the Bohemian Estates rescinded Ferdinand's 1617 election as king, and on 26th, formally offered the crown to Frederick instead; two days later, Ferdinand was elected Emperor, making war inevitable if Frederick accepted. 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